Larry Sanger Wikipedia |Biography
Larry Sanger(full name: Lawrence Mark Sanger) is an American Internet project developer, co-founder of Wikipedia, and the founder of Citizendium. He grew up in Anchorage, Alaska. From an early age, he was interested in philosophy. Sanger received a Bachelor of Arts in philosophy from Reed College in 1991 and a Doctor of Philosophy in philosophy from Ohio State University in 2000. Most of his philosophical work has focused on epistemology, the theory of knowledge.
He has been involved with various online encyclopedia projects. He is the former editor-in-chief of Nupedia, chief organizer (2001–02) of its successor, Wikipedia, and founding editor-in-chief of Citizendium.
From his position at Nupedia, he assembled the process for article development. Sanger proposed implementing a wiki, which led directly to the creation of Wikipedia. Initially, Wikipedia was a complementary project for Nupedia. He was Wikipedia’s early community leader and established many of its original policies.
Sanger left Wikipedia in 2002 and has since been critical of the project. He states that, despite its merits, Wikipedia lacks credibility due to, among other things, a lack of respect for expertise. In October 2006, Sanger started a somewhat similar encyclopedia to Wikipedia, Citizendium. In September 2017, it was announced that Sanger had joined Everipedia as chief information officer.
Sanger has taught philosophy at Ohio State University and was an early strategist for the expert-authored Encyclopedia of Earth. He has worked on developing educational projects for individuals behind WatchKnowLearn. He has designed a web-based reading program named Reading Bear, which aims to teach children how to read.
In February 2013, he attempted to start a news crowdsourcing project named Infobitt; it ran out of money in mid-2015 without the code is ready to handle a full-scale launch.
Larry Sanger Age
Lawrence Mark Sanger is 50 years old as of 2018. He was born on 16 July 1968, in Bellevue, Washington, United States
Larry Sanger Height
Lawrence Mark Sanger height is Unknown & weight Not Available. Dress & Shoe size will be added soon.
Larry Sanger ImageLarry Sanger Photo
Larry Sanger Personal life
Sanger moved to San Diego, California, in February 2000 when he was first hired by Wales to develop Nupedia. He was married in Las Vegas, Nevada, in December 2001. In January 2002 he returned to Columbus, Ohio, where he currently resides with his wife and two children.
Sanger supports the concept of baby reading. He says that he started teaching his boy to read before age 2, and he posted videos of his child reading.
Larry Sanger Early life and education
Sanger was born in Bellevue, Washington on July 16, 1968. His father was a marine biologist and his mother cared for the children. When he was seven years old, the family moved to Anchorage, Alaska. At an early age, he was interested in philosophical topics.
He graduated from high school in 1986 and went off to Reed College, majoring in philosophy. In college he became interested in the Internet and its publishing abilities. He set up a listserver as a medium for students and tutors to meet up for “expert tutoring” and “to act as a forum for discussion of tutorials, tutorial methods, and the possibility and merits of a voluntary, free network of individual tutors and students finding each other via the Internet for education outside the traditional university setting.” He started and moderated a philosophy discussion list, the Association for Systematic Philosophy.
Sanger wrote in 1994 a manifesto for the discussion group: “The history of philosophy is full of disagreement and confusion. One reaction by philosophers to this state of things is to doubt whether the truth about philosophy can ever be known, or whether there is any such thing as the truth about philosophy. But there is another reaction: one may set out to think more carefully and methodically than one’s intellectual forebears.”
Sanger received a Bachelor of Arts degree in philosophy from Reed College in 1991, a Master of Arts from Ohio State University in 1995, and a Doctor of Philosophy from Ohio State University in 2000. Beginning in 1998 he ran a website called “Sanger’s Review of Y2K News Reports”, a resource for those concerned about the year 2000 problem, such as managers of computer systems.
Larry Sanger Net Worth
Larry Sanger is an American Internet project developer who has a net worth of $650 thousand. Larry Sanger was born in Bellevue, Washington in July 1968. He is best known for being the co-founder of Wikipedia as well as the founder of Citizendium. Sanger graduated from Reed College and earned his Doctor of Philosophy degree from Ohio State University. He was the editor-in-chief for Nupedia and became the chief organizer of Wikipedia.
Sanger has also served as the editor-in-chief of Citizendium. He left Wikipedia in 2002 and has been critical of the project since, claiming that it lacks credibility. Sanger has been a professor of philosophy at Ohio State University and worked on the Encyclopedia of Earth. He has also designed the web-based reading program Reading Bear and started the crowdsourcing project Info bit.
Jimmy Wales And Larry Sanger
Jimmy Wales And Larry Sanger Photo
It is a question as old as intellectual property ownership itself: You hire a guy to come up with a project idea. He comes up with an idea. Your resources make the project happen. Who founded the project?
Your money, his idea–probably both, right?
Yet one was among Time’s 100 Most Influential People, among Forbes Web Celebs 25, and The Daily Telegraph’s 25 Web Superstars, while the other… Who actually is the other guy?
The talk is about Jimmy Wales, the founder/co-founder of Wikipedia, and Larry Sanger, the co-founder/former employee of Wikipedia.
The story begins with Jimmy Wales as a former options trader and Chief Executive Officer of Bomis, an adult content-oriented search engine provider.
In January 2000, Wales hired Larry Sanger to Bomis to start an on-line volunteer-created encyclopedia–the Nupedia.
Sanger, a philosophy Ph.D., took a rigorous approach with multiple levels of academic review to ensure quality. In its first year, Nupedia published a meager 12 articles.
Sanger and Wales were trying to figure out a way to rapidly supply content to Nupedia but struggled to find a platform that wouldn’t require an extensive investment or programming.
Then, on Jan. 2, 2001, Sanger met with his friend and computer programmer Ben Kovitz, who introduced him to the concept of “wiki.”
Wiki is a Hawaiian word for “quick” and was used by programmer Ward Cunningham to name his 1995 creation–a website where anybody can make a page or edit a page. The idea was intriguing to Sanger.
“Instantly I was considering whether wiki would work as a more open and simple editorial system for a free, collaborative encyclopedia, and it seemed exactly right,” he wrote in his memoir posted on SlashDot.org in 2005.
But then the story gets convoluted. Sanger states he returned home and wrote a short proposal to use the wiki to invite people to write encyclopedia content–in short, the idea of Wikipedia. He then sent the proposal to Wales.
Ben Kovitz, the one who incepted the idea, remembers it differently. According to him, they both went to Sanger’s home and Sanger called Wales. After the call, Kovitz stated, Sanger seemed optimistic Wales would back the idea.
At the time, Wales seemed to agree.
“Larry [Sanger] had the idea to use Wiki software for a separate project specifically for people like you (and me!) who are intimidated and bored (sorry, Nupedia!) with the tedium of the process,” he wrote on Oct. 30, 2001, on Wikipedia mailing list.
But several years later Wales changed the story, stating it wasn’t Sanger, but a Bomis employee Jeremy Rosenfeld who came to him with an idea to use the wiki as an encyclopedia platform.
“Larry Sanger was my employee working under my direct supervision during the entire process of launching Wikipedia. He was not the originator of the proposal to use a wiki for the encyclopedia project—that was Jeremy Rosenfeld,” Wales stated in an email to the NewAssignment.net editor Jay Rosen.
Sanger doubted that Rosenfeld’s suggestion if it happened, had any impact on the creation of Wikipedia.
“He certainly never mentioned the idea to me, and Jimmy [Wales] himself certainly didn’t act on the suggestion somehow independently of me,” Sanger stated on his Wikipedia user page.
Since Sanger couldn’t produce the wiki proposal he claims to have written on that fateful night, we may never know.
What we do know is that Wales had a wiki platform set up almost immediately and Sanger was put in charge of it. On Wednesday, Jan. 10, 2001, Sanger posted to Nupedia chat board a message titled, “Let’s make a wiki,” inviting the “nudists” to check out the new feature that allows anybody to try to create an encyclopedia entry.
Both Sanger and Wales agree on what happened next: Sanger came up with the name “Wikipedia.” In a week the domain was set up and on Jan. 17 Sanger posted another message: “Wikipedia is up!”
“Humor me. Go there and add a little article. It will take all of five or ten minutes,” the short message read, preceded with a link to Wikipedia.com.
But wait–isn’t it Wikipedia.org?
Wales originally planned to recover his costs (hundreds of thousands of dollars) through ads on Wikipedia. It seemed dishonest to claim the “.org” domain reserved for non-profits if the site would eventually turn into a for-profit, Sanger explained.
Only in 2003, did Wales decide to donate all property rights of Wikipedia to a non-profit he created, the Wikimedia Foundation.
And that’s the story. In a month Wikipedia had 1,000 articles. In eight months it was 10,000 and in a year and a half 40,000. As the number of contributors rose, Sanger was credited with formulating first iterations of the basic rules of Wikipedia, such as Neutral Point of View, No Original Research, and Verifiable Sources.
But there’s still a loose end, isn’t there? Why did Wales change his story, to begin with? He even went so far as to attempt to edit out Sanger’s role by rewriting the Wikipedia page about himself–something intrinsically frowned upon in the Wikipedians’ community.
Well, it may have something to do with a difference in opinion the two struggled with soon after Wikipedia took off.
While Wales wanted the volunteer contributors to police themselves, Sanger believed disruptive and trolling contributors were given too much leeway.
In 2002, with the dot-com bubble bursting, Bomis couldn’t support Sanger’s job anymore and Sanger left Wikipedia.
Sanger criticized Wikipedia on multiple occasions and deemed it imperfect and forever doomed to amateurism. In 2006, he founded the Citizendium, an open encyclopedia focusing on increased reliability. Almost all contributors have to sign up with real names, disruptive behavior is strictly moderated, and articles can go through an expert review marking them as “approved” and citable.
Alas, the site today has less than 17,000 articles and less than 200 approved ones.
So, who founded Wikipedia? You be the judge.
Comment from Jimmy Wales was solicited through the Wikimedia Foundation. There was no response by the time of publication.
Larry Sanger Philosophy
In 2007, Sanger examined the possibilities for education online. He explained, “Imagine that education were not delivered but organized and managed in a way that were fully digitized, decentralized, self-directed, asynchronous, and at-a-distance.” He further stated, “There would be no bureaucracy to enforce anything beyond some very basic rules, and decision-making would be placed almost entirely in the hands of teachers and students.”
In 2007, Sanger wrote an essay for the Edge stating in part: “As it turns out, our many Web 2.0 revolutionaries have been so thoroughly seized with the successes of strong collaboration that they are resistant to recognizing some hard truths. As wonderful as it might be that the hegemony of professionals over knowledge is lessening, there is a downside: our grasp of and respect for reliable information suffers. With the rejection of professionalism has come a widespread rejection of expertise—of the proper role in society of people who make it their life’s work to know stuff.
This, I maintain, is not a positive development; but it is also not a necessary one. We can imagine a Web 2.0 with experts. We can imagine an Internet that is still egalitarian, but which is more open and welcoming to specialists. The new politics of knowledge that I advocate would place experts at the head of the table, but—unlike the old order—gives the general public a place at the table as well.”
In 2008, Sanger was at Oxford University to debate the proposition that “the internet is the future of knowledge.” Sanger agreed that today’s wikis and blogs are fundamentally changing the way knowledge is created and distributed.
In 2010, Sanger wrote an article for Educause stating in part: “In the last several years, many observers of education and learning have been stunned by the abundance of information online, the ever-faster findability of answers, and the productivity of online ‘crowds,’ which have created information resources like Wikipedia and YouTube. The enormous scope of these developments has surprised me too, despite the fact that they are more or less what many of us had hoped for and deliberately tried to bring into being.
These sudden, revolutionary developments demand analysis: How is this latest information explosion changing the way we live? Is the relationship between society and individual changing? More to the point for this article, how is the Internet revolution changing education?”
Origins of Wikipedia
Wales started to play down Sanger’s role in the founding of the project in 2005, a few years after Sanger left Wikipedia.In light of Wales’ view, Sanger posted on his personal webpage several links which supported his role as a co-founder. Sanger was identified as a co-founder of Wikipedia at least as early as September 2001. Wales identified himself in August 2002 as “co-founder” of Wikipedia.Sanger said “While I was organizing Wikipedia, Wales was in the background and focused on Bomis.com.” Wales stated in 2005 that he had initially heard of the wiki concept in 2001 not from Sanger, but instead from Jeremy Rosenfeld. Wales stated in October 2001 that it was “Larry (who) had the idea to use Wiki software for a separate project.”
The critical concept of marrying the three fundamental elements of Wikipedia, namely an encyclopedia, a wiki, and essentially unrestricted editorial access to the public, first took form when Sanger met up with an old friend, Ben Kovitz.This meeting occurred at a dinner on January 2, 2001, and it was here that Sanger was first introduced to the functionality of wiki software. Kovitz was a computer programmer and a regular on Ward Cunningham’s wiki. Sanger thought a wiki would be a good platform to use and decided to present the idea to Jimmy Wales, at that time the head of Bomis.Sanger initially proposed the wiki concept to Wales and suggested it be applied to Nupedia and, after some initial skepticism, Wales agreed to try it.
It was Jimmy Wales, along with other people, who came up with the broader idea of an open-source, collaborative encyclopedia that would accept contributions from ordinary people and it was Wales who invested in it. Sanger came up with the name “Wikipedia”, which he later said was “a silly name for what was at first a very silly project”. Sanger first conceived of the wiki-based encyclopedia project only as a means to hopefully accelerate Nupedia’s slow growth. During Wikipedia’s critical first year of growth, Sanger spearheaded and guided the following that gathered around this nucleus.
Through this early period, he served as Wikipedia’s “chief organizer”, a position which has not been filled since his departure from Wikipedia.Sanger is also credited with creating and enforcing many of the policies and strategy that made Wikipedia possible during its first formative year. By May 2001 there were 3,900 articles.By the end of the year in 2001, the site had about 15,000 articles and upwards of 350 Wikipedians.
Since Sanger parted ways with Wikipedia in 2002, he has been critical of its accuracy, among other things. In December 2004, Sanger wrote a critical article for the website Kuro5hin, in which he stated that Wikipedia is not perceived as credible among librarians, teachers, and academics when it does not have a formal review process and it is “anti-elitist”.
In September 2009, Sanger mentioned one reason for distancing himself from Wikipedia: “I thought that the project would never have the amount of credibility it could have if it were not somehow more open and welcoming to experts.” He pointed out, “The other problem was the community had essentially been taken over by trolls to a great extent. That was a real problem, and Jimmy Wales absolutely refused to do anything about it.” Wales responded by stating, “I think very highly of Larry Sanger, and think that it is unfortunate that this silly debate has tended to overshadow his work.”
Sanger, a philosophy instructor, began work as a lecturer at Ohio State University, where he taught philosophy until June 2005.His professional interests are epistemology (in particular), early modern philosophy, and ethics.
In December 2005, Digital Universe Foundation announced that Sanger had been hired as Director of Distributed Content Programs. He would be a key organizer of the Digital Universe Encyclopedia web projects which was launched in early 2006. The Digital Universe encyclopedia has recruited recognized experts to write articles, and to check user-submitted articles for accuracy. The first step in this effort was the expert-authored and edited Encyclopedia of Earth, an electronic reference about the Earth.
The question of accuracy over Wikipedia article content spurred Sanger to unveil plans for a new encyclopedia called Citizendium, short for “citizens’ compendium”. At the Wizards of OS conference in September 2006, Sanger announced Citizendium as a fork of Wikipedia.
The objectives of the fork were to address various perceived flaws in the Wikipedia system. The main differences would be no anonymous editing: every author/editor would have to be identified by his/her real name, no “top-down” hierarchy of editors: it would aspire to be a “real encyclopedia.”
In 2015, Sanger was interviewed by Zach Schwartz in Vice. In the interview, he said, among other things, that “I think Wikipedia never solved the problem of how to organize itself in a way that didn’t lead to mob rule” and that since he left the project, “People that I would say are trolls sort of took over. The inmates started running the asylum.”
In early 2009, Sanger effectively ceased to edit Citizendium, although an announcement confirming this was not made until July 30, 2009, on the Citizendium-l mailing list. On September 22, 2010, Sanger stepped down as editor-in-chief of Citizendium but said, at the time, that he would continue to support the project.
In April 2010 Sanger sent a letter to the FBI detailing his concern that Wikimedia Commons was hosting child pornography in its pedophilia and lolicon categories later clarified as “obscene visual representations of the abuse of children”. Sanger said that he felt it was his “civic duty” to report the images.
Sanger told FoxNews.com that, in 2012, he worked with NetSpark to get them to donate or heavily discount its pornographic image filtering technology for use by Wikipedia. NetSpark attempted to contact the Wikimedia Foundation in July/August 2012, but received no response at that time. In December 2010 Sanger said he considered WikiLeaks “enemies of the U.S. — not just the government, but the people.”
He has worked at the WatchKnowLearn project, a non-profit organization which focuses on educating young children using educational videos and other media on the web.Sanger was the executive director of the system.It is a non-profit funded by grants, philanthropists, and the Community Foundation of Northwest Mississippi. Sanger headed the development of WatchKnowLearn from 2008 to 2010. It consists of a repository of educational videos for kindergarten to the 12th grade.
In February 2013, it ranked as the No. 1 search result among educational videos on Google’s search engine, with page views surmounting 6 million each month. In 2010 and 2011, he continued working on developing a web-based reading-tutorial application for beginning readers which was launched as Reading Bear in 2012. It uses the principles of phonics, using multimedia presentations such as videos, PowerPoint presentations, and ebooks. In addition to aiming to teach children to pronounce words, it aims to teach the meaning and context of each word.
In February 2013, Sanger announced a project he named Infobitt – a crowdsourced news portal. On Twitter, he wrote: “My new project will show the world how to crowdsource high-quality content—a problem I’ve long wanted to solve. Not a wiki”. The site, which sought to be a crowdsourced news aggregator, went online in December 2014.In July 2015, Sanger announced that the project had run out of money, he had let the programmers go, he was himself looking for a job, and that it was impossible to do a full launch of the project as the code behind it was still only capable of working “at a small scale”. The site is no longer active.
In September 2017, it was announced that Sanger became the chief information officer of Everipedia. Sanger told Inverse in December 2017 that Everipedia is “going to change the world in a dramatic way, more than Wikipedia did.” Sanger said, “Everipedia is the encyclopedia of everything, where topics are unrestricted, unlike on Wikipedia.” It is an open encyclopedia contributed by many different editors that will use blockchain technology.