## Kip Thorne Wiki

Kip Thorne (Kip Stephen Thorne) is an American theoretical physicist and Nobel laureate, known for his contributions in gravitational physics and astrophysics. A longtime friend and colleague of Stephen Hawking and Carl Sagan, he was the Feynman Professor of Theoretical Physics at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) until 2009 and is one of the world’s leading experts on the astrophysical implications of Einstein’s general theory of relativity.

## Kip Thorne Biography

Kip Thorne graduated at Logan High School (Utah) where he excelled in academics at an early age and winning recognition in the Westinghouse Science Talent and he became one of the youngest full professors in the history of California Institute of Technology at age 30. He received his B.S. degree from Caltech in 1962, and a Ph.D. degree from Princeton University in 1965. He went on and wrote his doctoral thesis, in Geometrodynamics of Cylindrical Systems, under the supervision of John Wheeler.

He continues to do scientific research and scientific consulting, most notably for the Christopher Nolan film Interstellar. In 2017, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics along with Rainer Weiss and Barry C. Barish “for decisive contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves”.

## Kip Thorne Age

Kip Thorne was born on June 1, 1940, in Logan, Utah, United States.

## Kip Thorne Family

Kip Thorne was born in Logan, Utah to D. Wynne Thorne (father) and Alison C. Thorne (mother). His father was a chemist and his mother was an economist and the first woman to receive a Ph.D. in the discipline from Iowa State College. He was raised in an academic environment, two of his four siblings also became professors.

His parents were members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) and raised Thorne in the LDS faith, though he now describes himself as an atheist. Regarding his views on science and religion, Thorne has stated: “There are large numbers of my finest colleagues who are quite devout and believe in God […] There is no fundamental incompatibility between science and religion. I happen to not believe in God.”

## Kip Thorne Wife

He has a wife Linda Jean Peterson, they have been married since 1960.

## Kip Thorne Children

They couple is blessed with two children.

## Kip Thorne Height

Kip Thorne stands at a height of 170 centimeters, 1.70 meters, and 5′ 7” Feet Inches.

## Kip Thorne Net worth

Kip Thorne net worth is estimated to be $1.9 dollars per minute, $114.16 dollars per hour and $2,739.73 dollars per day. He gets all this for his work as a theoretical physicist and Nobel laureate.

## Kip Thorne theoretical physicist and Nobel laureate

Kip Thorne had passion in this work because he scored good marks in high school and at the University and he eventually did it with passion. He then returned to Caltech as an associate professor in 1967 and became a professor of theoretical physics in 1970, the William R. Kenan, Jr. Professor in 1981, and the Feynman Professor of Theoretical Physics in 1991.

He was an adjunct professor at the University of Utah from 1971 to 1998 and Andrew D. White Professor at Large at Cornell University from 1986 to 1992. In June 2009 he resigned his Feynman Professorship (he is now the Feynman Professor of Theoretical Physics, Emeritus) to pursue a career of writing and movie making.

His first film project was Interstellar, on which he worked with Christopher Nolan and Jonathan Nolan. Throughout the years, he has served as a mentor and thesis advisor for many leading theorists who now work on observational, experimental, or astrophysical aspects of general relativity. Approximately 50 physicists have received Ph.D.s at Caltech under Thorne’s personal mentorship. He is known for his ability to convey the excitement and significance of discoveries in gravitation and astrophysics to both professional and lay audiences.

In 1999, he made some speculations on what the 21st century will find as the answers to the following questions: Is there a “dark side of the universe” populated by objects such as black holes? Can we observe the birth of the universe and its dark side using radiation made from space-time warpage, or so-called “gravitational waves”? Will 21st-century technology reveal quantum behavior in the realm of human-size objects?

His presentations on subjects such as black holes, gravitational radiation, relativity, time travel, and wormholes have been included in PBS shows in the U.S. and in the United Kingdom on the BBC. Thorne and Linda Jean Peterson married in 1960. Their children are Kares Anne and Bret Carter, an architect. Thorne and Peterson divorced in 1977. Thorne and his second wife, Carolee Joyce Weinstein, a professor of biokinesiology and physical therapy at USC, married in 1984.

## Kip Thorne Researcher

Kip Thorne research has principally focused on relativistic astrophysics and gravitation physics, with emphasis on relativistic stars, black holes, and especially gravitational waves. He is perhaps best known to the public for his controversial theory that wormholes can conceivably be used for time travel. However, Thorne’s scientific contributions, which center on the general nature of space, time, and gravity, span the full range of topics in general relativity.

## Kip Thorne Gravitational waves and LIGO

Kip Thorne’s work has dealt with the prediction of gravitational wave strengths and their temporal signatures as observed on Earth. These “signatures” are of great relevance to LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory), a multi-institution gravitational wave experiment for which Thorne has been a leading proponent in 1984, he co-founded the LIGO Project (the largest project ever funded by the NSF) to discern and measure any fluctuations between two or more ‘static’ points; such fluctuations would be evidence of gravitational waves, as calculations describe.

A significant aspect of his research is developing the mathematics necessary to analyze these objects. He also carries out engineering design analyses for features of the LIGO that cannot be developed on the basis of experiment and he gives advice on data analysis algorithms by which the waves will be sought. He has provided theoretical support for LIGO, including identifying gravitational wave sources that LIGO should target, designing the baffles to control scattered light in the LIGO beam tubes, and in collaboration with Vladimir Braginsky’s (Moscow, Russia) research group inventing quantum nondemolition designs for advanced gravity-wave detectors and ways to reduce the most serious kind of noise in advanced detectors: thermoelastic noise.

With Carlton M.Caves, he invented the back-action-evasion approach to quantum nondemolition measurements of the harmonic oscillators a technique applicable both in gravitational wave detection and quantum optics.

On February 11, 2016, a team of four physicists[a] representing the LIGO Scientific Collaboration, announced that in September 2015, LIGO recorded the signature of two black holes colliding 1.3 billion light-years away. This recorded detection was the first direct observation of the fleeting chirp of a gravitational wave and confirmed an important prediction of Einstein’s general theory of relativity.

## Kip Thorne Nobel prize

Kip S. Thorne

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2017

Born: 1 June 1940, Logan, UT, USA

Affiliation at the time of the award: LIGO/VIRGO Collaboration, California Institute of Technology (Caltech), Pasadena, CA, USA

Prize motivation: “for decisive contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves.”

Prize share: 1/4

One consequence of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity is the existence of gravitational waves. These are like ripples in a four-dimensional spacetime that occur when objects with mass accelerate. The effects are very small. Beginning in the 1970s the LIGO detector was developed. In this detector, laser technology is used to measure small changes in length caused by gravitational waves. Kip Thorne has made crucial contributions to the development of the detector. In 2015 gravitational waves were detected for the first time.

## Kip Thorne Books

- Modern Classical Physics: Optics, Fluids, Plasmas, Elasticity, Relativity, and Statistical Physics 2017.
- The Science of Interstellar 2014
- The Future of Spacetime 2002
- Black Holes and Time Warps 1994
- Quantum Measurement 1992
- Gravitation (book) 1973

## Kip Thorne Blackhole cosmology

Kip Thorne while he was studying for his Ph.D. in Princeton University, his mentor John Wheeler gave him an assignment problem for him to think over: find out whether or not a cylindrical bundle of repulsive magnetic field lines will implode under its own attractive gravitational force. After several months of wrestling with the problem, he proved that it was impossible for cylindrical magnetic field lines to implode. Why is it that a cylindrical bundle of magnetic field lines will not implode, while spherical stars will implode under their own gravitational force?

Thorne tried to explore the theoretical ridge between the two phenomena. He found out eventually that the gravitational force can overcome all interior pressure only when an object has been compressed in all directions. To express this realization, Thorne proposed his hoop conjecture, which describes an imploding star turning into a black hole when the critical circumference of the designed hoop can be placed around it and set into rotation.

That is, an object of mass M around which a hoop of circumference {displaystyle {begin{matrix}{frac {4pi GM}{c^{2}}}end{matrix}}} begin{matrix} frac{4 pi GM}{c^2} end{matrix} can be spun must be a black hole.:189–190As a tool to be used in both enterprises, astrophysics and theoretical physics, Thorne and his students have developed an unusual approach, called the “membrane paradigm”, to the theory of black holes and used it to clarify the “Blandford-Znajek” mechanism by which black holes may power some quasars and active galactic nuclei.:405–411.

He has investigated the quantum statistical mechanical origin of the entropy of a black hole. With his postdoc Wojciech Zurek, he showed that the entropy of a black hole is the logarithm of the number of ways that the hole could have been made.:445–446With Igor Novikov and Don Page he developed the general relativistic theory of thin accretion disks around black holes and using this theory he deduced that with a doubling of its mass by such accretion a black hole will be spun up to 0.998 of the maximum spin allowed by general relativity, but not any farther. This is probably the maximum black-hole spin allowed in nature.

## Kip Thorne Wormholes and time travel

Kip Thorne A wormhole is a short cut connecting two separate regions in space. In the figure, the green line shows the short way through the wormhole, and the red line shows the long way through normal space. Kip and his co-workers at Caltech conducted scientific research on whether the laws of physics permit space and time to be multiply connected (can there exist classical, traversable wormholes and “time machines”?).

With Sung-Won Kim, Thorne identified a universal physical mechanism (the explosive growth of vacuum polarization of quantum fields), that may always prevent spacetime from developing closed timelike curves (i.e., prevent backward time travel). With Mike Morris and Ulvi Yurtsever, he showed that traversable Lorentzian wormholes can exist in the structure of spacetime only if they are threaded by quantum fields in quantum states that violate the averaged null energy condition (i.e. have negative renormalized energy spread over a sufficiently large region).

This has triggered research to explore the ability of quantum fields to possess such extended negative energy. Recent calculations by Thorne indicate that simple masses passing through traversable wormholes could never engender paradoxes – there are no initial conditions that lead to paradox once time travel is introduced. If his results can be generalized, they would suggest that none of the supposed paradoxes formulated in time travel stories can actually be formulated at a precise physical level: that is, that any situation in a time travel story turns out to permit many consistent solutions.

## Kip Thorne Relativistic stars, multipole moments and other endeavors

With Anna Żytkow, Thorne predicted the existence of red supergiant stars with neutron-star cores (Thorne–Żytkow objects). He laid the foundations for the theory of pulsations of relativistic stars and the gravitational radiation they emit.

With James Hartle, Thorne derived from general relativity the laws of motion and precession of black holes and other relativistic bodies, including the influence of the coupling of their multipole moments to the spacetime curvature of nearby objects, as well as writing down the Hartle-Thorne metric, and an approximate solution which describes the exterior of a slowly and rigidly rotating, stationary and axially symmetric body.

Thorne has also theoretically predicted the existence of universally antigravitating “exotic matter” – the element needed to accelerate the expansion rate of the universe, keep traversable wormhole “Star Gates” open and keep timelike geodesic free float “warp drives” working.

With Clifford Will and others of his students, he laid the foundations for the theoretical interpretation of experimental tests of relativistic theories of gravity – foundations on which Will and others then built. As of 2005, Thorne was interested in the origin of classical space and time from the quantum foam of quantum gravity theory.

## Kip Thorne Publications

Thorne has written and edited books on topics in gravitational theory and high-energy astrophysics. In 1973, he co-authored the textbook Gravitation with Charles Misner and John Wheeler; that according to John C. Baez and Chris Hillman, is one of the great scientific books of all time and has inspired two generations of students. In 1994, he published Black Holes and Time Warps: Einstein’s Outrageous Legacy, a book for non-scientists for which he received numerous awards.

This book has been published in six languages, and editions in Chinese, Italian, Czech, and Polish are in press.[when?] In 2014, Thorne published The Science of Interstellar in which he explains the science behind Christopher Nolan’s film Interstellar; Nolan wrote the foreword to the book. In September 2017, Thorne and Roger D. Blandford published Modern Classical Physics: Optics, Fluids, Plasmas, Elasticity, Relativity, and Statistical Physics, a graduate-level textbook covering the six major areas of physics listed in the title.

## Kip Thorne Recognition

- the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1972)
- the National Academy of Sciences,
- the Russian Academy of Sciences, and
- the American Philosophical Society.

## Kip Thorne Honors and Awards

- he Gruber Prize in Cosmology (2016)
- the Shaw Prize (2016) (together with Ronald Drever and Rainer Weiss).
- the Kavli Prize in Astrophysics (2016) (together with Ronald Drever and Rainer Weiss).
- the Tomalla Prize (2016) for extraordinary contributions to general relativity and gravity.
- the Georges Lemaître Prize (2016)
- the Harvey Prize (2016) (together with Ronald Drever and Rainer Weiss).
- the Princess of Asturias Award (2017) (jointly with Rainer Weiss and Barry Barish).
- the Nobel Prize in Physics (2017) (jointly with Rainer Weiss and Barry Barish)
- the Lewis Thomas Prize (2018)
- the Smithsonian Magazine American Ingenuity Award for Physical Sciences (2016)

Thorne has served on:

- the International Committee on General Relativity and Gravitation,
- the Committee on US-USSR Cooperation in Physics, and
- the National Academy of Sciences’ Space Science Board, which has advised NASA and Congress on space science policy. Kip Thorne was selected by Time magazine in an annual list of the 100 most influential people in the American world in 2016.

## Kip Thorne Adaptation in media

- Thorne contributed ideas on wormhole travel to Carl Sagan for use in his novel Contact.
- Thorne and his friend, producer Lynda Obst, also developed the concept for the Christopher Nolan film Interstellar. He also wrote a tie-in book, The Science of Interstellar.
- In Larry Niven’s novel Rainbow Mars, the time travel technology used in the novel is based on the wormhole theories of Thorne, which in the context of the novel was when time travel first became possible, rather than just fantasy. As a result, any attempts to travel in time prior to Thorne’s development of wormhole theory results in the time traveler entering a fantastic version of reality, rather than the actual past.
- In the film The Theory of Everything, Thorne was portrayed by actor Enzo Cilenti.
- Thorne played himself in an episode of The Big Bang Theory

## Kip Thorne Quotes

- A black hole really is an object with very rich structure, just like Earth has a rich structure of mountains, valleys, oceans, and so forth. Its warped space whirls around the central singularity like air in a tornado
- ‘Closed timelike curve’ is the jargon for time travel. It means you go out, come back and meet yourself in the past.
- As a true scientist, I have been proved wrong so many times that I’m very humble.
- Gravitational waves will bring us exquisitely accurate maps of black holes – maps of their space-time. Those maps will make it crystal clear whether or not what we’re dealing with are black holes as described by general relativity.
- The human race has a yearning to explore. That’s part of our biological and psychological makeup.
- When Galileo first trained his optic telescope on the heavens and opened up modern optical astronomy, that was the first of the electromagnetic windows out of the universe: light.
- I became interested in this question of whether you can build wormholes for interstellar travel. I realized that if you had a wormhole, the theory of general relativity by itself would permit you to go backward in time.
- Black holes do not emit light, so you visualize them through gravitational lensing – how they bend light from other objects.
- Each black hole spins on its axis as the Earth spins. That spin creates two vortexes of twisting space, somewhat like vortexes in a bathtub or a whirlpool.
- A big misconception is that a black hole is made of matter that has just been compacted to a very small size. That’s not true. A black hole is made from warped space and time.

## Kip Thorne Twitter